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Thursday, November 19, 2020

SOME COMMON TOXIC PRINCIPLES & THEIR TREATMENT

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5f48cb012794ceb8e8abc6c330ccd168?s=96&d=mm&r=g • SOME COMMON TOXIC PRINCIPLES & THEIR TREATMENT
Sajeed Mohdhttps://vets.petyaari.com/
If having a soul means being able to feel love and loyalty and gratitude, then animals are better off than a lot of humans

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SOME COMMON TOXIC PRINCIPLES & THEIR TREATMENT

SOME COMMON TOXIC PRINCIPLES & THEIR TREATMENT

SR.NO.

TOXIC PRINCIPLE

TYPE

TREATMENT

1

Arsenic

Metal

BAL (Dimercaprol, British Anti- Lewisite : Warfare agent) inj. @ 4-5 mg/ kg IM tid for 3 days, Thiooctic acid ( Lipoic acid ) @ 50 mg/kg as 20 % solution IM tid,

Mineral oil orally, Gastric lavage, Demulcents LA 3 mg/kg SC/IM,

SA 2.5-5 mg/kg SC/IM

2

Mercury

( Minamata disease 1953-1960 &

Nigata disease 1964- 1965 in small towns of JAPAN )

Metal

BAL ( Dimercaprol, British Anti- Lewisite ) inj. @ 4-5 mg/ kg IM

Tid for 3 days,

D- Penicillimase 15-20 mg/kg orally,

Thiooctic acid ( Lipoic acid ) @ 50 mg/kg as 20 % solution IM tid,

Mineral oil orally, Gastric lavage, Demulcents LA 3 mg/kg SC/IM,

SA 2.5-5 mg/kg SC/IM

3

Copper

( Deep GREEN colour diarrhoea )

( Haemolytic crisis in Ruminants only because they store Cu in RBC & Liver )

Metal

BAL ( British Anti- Lewisite ) inj. @ 4-5 mg/ kg IM

tid for 3 days, Vit. C ( Ascorbic acid ),

Daily feeding of Ammonium molybdate@ 50-500 mg & Sodium sulphate @ 250-1000 mg /animal for 3-6 weeks.

4

Lead

Metal

Cal- Na2 EDTA 110 mg/kg/day IV & repeat after 2 days,

BAL inj. 2-3 mg/kg IM, Thiamine 2-4 mg/kg/day IM,

D- Penicillimase 110 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks , Calciumphosphogluconate @ 250-500 ml IV

5

Cadmium

(Itai-Itai disease or Ouch-Ouch disease)

Metal

Calcium sodium EDTA as chelating agent.

6

Molybdenum ( also called as Molybdenosis, Peat scour, Teart disease,

Spectacle disease, Pacing disease, Enzootic ataxia, Sway back disease ) ( Ideal ratio of

Cu : Mb in ration is 6 : 1 but toxic if less than 2 : 1 )

Metal

For scouring 1 gm CuSO4 /day in calves,

2 gm CuSO4 /day in adults cattle.

       

7

Selenium (Subacute : Blind stagger,

Chronic : Alkali disease, Sloughing of hooves,shedding of tail hairs called as BOB or CIGAR TAIL )

( Sources : A)Obligate Se accumulator or Se indicator or Se

convertor plants : They need Se for growth , Se content high as 10000 ppm,

Ex. Astragalous, Onopsis, Stanleya, Xylorrhiza spp.

  1. Facultative Se accumulator : Do not require for growth but store as 100 ppm,

Ex. Aster, Astriplex,Castillega spp.

  1. Passive Se accumulator : all plant growing in Se rich areas accumulate Se upto 25 ppm.

Metal

No specific Antidote. Acute : Saline purgatives,

Treatment of pulmonary oedema & shock, removal of cause.

Subacute & chronic : Sodium arsenite 5 % or

2.5 % Sodium arsenate in water.

Precautions : BAL is not used because it increases enal damages.

Vit. E should not be given because it has synergistic with Selenium.

8

Iron

Metal

Deferoxamine. Adrenaline, antihistaminics Dogs desferrioxamine 1-2 gm IM,

Orally milk of magnesia, large oral dose of Vit. C (Ascorbic acid )

9

Fluoride

Chronic fluorosis has two types

  1. Dental fluorosis causes chalkiness or Mottling (black, yellow, green brown spots on teeth )
  2. Skeletal

fluorosis / Osteofluorsis it causes Exostoses

Non-Metal

Aluminium sulphate, & calcium carbonate @ 30 gm/ animals orally, dietery supplementation of calcium, phosphorous, Vit. D.

10

Nitrate & Nitrite

Non-Metal

Methylene blue 15 slow IV in isotonic saline

Cattle & sheep 10 mg/kg & other species 5 mg /kg

11

Oxalates

Non-Metal

25% Dicalcium phosphate orally in salt ration

12

Salt

( Hypernatremia : Excessive thirst due to stimulation of

Osmoreceptors )

Non-Metal

Fluid therapy, Sedative.

13

Urea (Alkalies )

Non-Metal

5% Acetic acid ( Vinegar ) orally, Demulcents, Analgesic,sedative to quieten the

animal

14

Carbamate containing pesticide ex. Carbaryl, Propoxur

Insecticides

Atropine 0.2-0.5 mg/kg for Cattle

0.2-2 mg/kg for Dog in physiological

saline

(1/4th dose is given as IV, rest as SC/IM), Diuretics.

15

Organochlorine insecticides Chlorinated hyrocarbons/ Insecticides/ Pesticides, Ex. DDT, Aldrin, Lindane, Endosulfan, Dicofol

Insecticides

Babiturate, Saline purgatives, Gastric lavage, Activated charcoal ( 2kg stat ; 1 kg daily for 2 weeks)

16

Organophosphorous compounds like, insecticide, Pesticides, Ex. Malathion, Parathion, Coumphos, Dichlorvos, DFP.

Insecticides

2-PAM (Cholinesterase reactivator) Atropinte sulphate in double dose Cattle @ 0.50 mg/kg ,

Sheep , Goat 2 mg/kg, Dog 0.4-4 mg/kg, Pralidoxime 1 gm/kg ,

Supportive therapy like Emetics, Respiratory stimulants, Sedatives.

17

Warfarin

Rodenticides

Vit. K LA @ 0.5-1 mg/kg IM

SA @ 5 mg/kg IV, Sedative & tranquilizers, Blood transfusion @ 20 mg/kg.

18

Phosphorous

( Yellow & White : Toxic,

Red : Non-toxic )

Rodenticides

Gastric lavage with KMNO4 0.01 % or 0.5% CuSO4, Saline purgative.

19

HCN Poisoning

( Cynide containing plants

Ex. Sorfum vulgar’s JOWAR. young shoots contain DHURRIN )

Plants

Sodium nitrite 5 mg/kg as slow IV,

Sodium thiosulphate 600 mg/kg as slow IV, ( 20% Solution 40-80 ml )

       

20

Bracken fern

( Pteridium aquilinium ) (Toxic principle : Thiaminase , ptaquiloside : Carcinogenic glycoside & Aplastic anaemia factor )

Plants

Most effective is blood transfusion 0.4 L in young animals, 1-4 L in adult animal with 3% Sodium citrate followed by second transfusion of half of above quantity.

DL Batyl alcohol ( Erythopoietic bone marrow stimulant) 2gm IV/SC for 4 to 5 days, Thiamine LA 100 mg-1gm IV/IM,

SA 5-10 mg/kg IV/IM, Toluidine blue ( 1 gm/ litre of serum ) @ 1-2 litre/day IV Slow,

1% Sodium chloride ( 100 ml ) by slow IV.

21

Sweet clover or dicumorol

Plants

Vit. K LA @ 0.5-1 mg/kg IM

SA @ 5 mg/kg IV, Sedative & tranquilizers, Blood transfusion @ 20 mg/kg.

22

Coal tar

Dust

Removal of cause, Gastric lavage.

23

Acids

 

2% sodium bicarbonate orally,

Demulcents, Analgesic,sedative to quieten the animal

24

Atropine

Drug

Gastric lavage with KMNO4, Activated charcoal, Emetics, Neostigmine, Saline purgative.

Universal Antidote

  1. Powdered Charcoal 2 parts+ Kaolin ( absorb poison ) 1 part+ Tannic acid (precipitate alkaloid & metallic poison) 1part+

Magnesium oxide ( causes purgation ) 1 part.

  1. ATROPINE SULPHATE,
  2. CALCIUM BOROGLUCONATE.
5f48cb012794ceb8e8abc6c330ccd168?s=96&d=mm&r=g • SOME COMMON TOXIC PRINCIPLES & THEIR TREATMENT
Sajeed Mohdhttps://vets.petyaari.com/
If having a soul means being able to feel love and loyalty and gratitude, then animals are better off than a lot of humans

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